Technical Report

What is it
It consists of a mix of minerals (mainly elbaite and uvite) with ionizing capacity and small amounts of mineral and organic binders that allow the agglomeration and formation of the pellets. The pellets are contained in a polypropylene globe provided with cracks that allow the passage of water inside.

How does it work
The washing action is obtained with the ionization of the water explicated by the CLINETOR® whose components are charged using the magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fields present at a maximum distance of 30 cm.

The ionization makes the water less “viscous” (in fact it is the negative charges produced by the CLINETOR® that make the molecular agglomerates of the water (smaller clusters) and makes it pass more easily among the fibers of the fabrics by wetting them and removing the dirty soluble in water.
This action is transmitted to everything in solution and dispersion in water, including detergents and additives that are added during washing to remove difficult dirt.
In short, it enhances their effectiveness by reducing their dosage by up to 95%.
For this reason CLINETOR® is combined with an organic stain remover (Marseilles soap) for the removal of difficult stains.

CLINETOR® removes all types of odors.
The negative ionization (antibacterial and acaricide action) allows to remove the annoying smell of sweat that normally is only covered by normal detergents but which is reminded during ironing.
It is not necessary to add the antiscale since CLINETOR® avoids the deposit of the salts that constitute the hardness of the water.
The ionizing action of CLINETOR® on the fabrics ends at the same time they move away from the ball.

Depending on the type of wash cycle used, the life of each CLINETOR® ball varies from 50 to over 60 washes.
When the fragments of CLINETOR® begin to come out from the container globe, it is necessary to replace and not integrate the contents with a new refill.
The container globe of the CLINETOR® safely tolerates over 500 washes.

Greasy dirt and stains
To avoid that there remain halos, dirt of grease, lipstick, coffee, grass, red wine, difficult stains, etc. it is advisable to treat them locally with the appropriate soap of Marseilles or with the specific stainers usually used.

To obtain a perfumed laundry, a teaspoon of fabric softener or a few drops of the preferred essence can be added at the end of the wash.

– Lower cost for each wash.
– Energy saving as it can reduce the temperature by at least 10 ° C compared to the usual
– The laundry is sanitized (antibacterial and anti-mite) and free from odors.
– No more detergent residues between the fibers of the tissues causing allergies and skin irritations.
– Colors do not undergo alterations.
– Total respect for fabrics and longer life.
– Water discharged from the washing machine can be used to water the flowers.
– No more clogging of drains and sewage wells
– Drastic reduction of pollution. The weight loss of the inert mineral is less than 2 gr for each wash against 100-200 g of traditional detergents.
– It extends the life of the washing machine and requires less maintenance.
– Tourmaline

Features and use in CLINETOR®
Tourmalines are minerals associated with igneous and metamorphic rocks. The tourmaline is formed by a complex group of siliceous minerals that share an identical crystalline structure (trigonal) and a different chemical composition. The main components of the tourmaline are the boron silicate and the aluminum silicate, but because of the isomorphism (the replacement of one ion with another in the crystal lattice without changing the structure of the mineral) other minerals have been incorporated in it, above all sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium and lithium. The differences in the chemical composition cause both color differences and chemical-physical properties.

In the CLINETOR® two varieties of tourmaline are used: elbaite and uvite, rhombohedral borosilicate from the general formula:
Elbaite: Na (Li, Al) 3Al6B3Si6O27 (OH) 3 (OH, F)
Uvite: CaMg3 (Al5Mg) B3Si6O27 (OH) 3 (OH, F)
In the international classification (IMA – International Mineralogical Association) the elbaite belongs to the group of the alkaline tourmalines, the uvite to that of the calcic tourmalines.

Physical properties
Tourmalines, as a consequence of their asymmetrical crystalline structure and the presence of boron atoms (B) which has an external electronic structure with an electronic gap, possess two characteristic properties, piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity.

The piezoelectricity consists in the electric polarization that is obtained in certain dielectric crystals following the application of a mechanical stress (eg, gas-fired). On the contrary, it is also the mechanical distortion of two faces of a crystal following the application of a certain voltage between the faces.
Pyroelectricity is the property of certain crystals to produce a state of electrical polarity following a temperature change.
These two properties have been known for a long time and well documented by a vast international literature 1 2 3 4 5.
In the tourmaline the thermal coefficient due to the polarization energy is 1 × 10-7 ÷ 4 × 10-6 cal • cm-2 • k-1. When both pressure and temperature change (including fractional changes of fractions of ° C), these cause a potential difference (voltage). This type of static voltage is more than 1 million electron volts (1 × 106 eV) and this accelerates the ionization of the air and water around the crystal. The electrons that are emitted hit the water and oxygen molecules present and turn them into negative ions (formally H3O2- and O32-), which causes an oscillating unbalancing of the crystal polarity that causes a change in the orientation of the dipole: the newly formed negative ions are forced to move away from the surface of the crystal 6 7 8.

In 1986, in a Japanese research center 9, it was shown that even when the tourmaline was turned into dust, in the microcrystals there were positive and negative electrodes and the electrodes did not disappear even if the tourmaline was brought to about 1000 ° C. In addition, when the electrodes were connected to each other, an electrical current of 0.06 mA was recorded.
Subsequent studies have allowed to verify the effects that the mechanical agitation and the variation of temperature have on the tourmaline 10 11.

As the detergent ability of the tourmaline is never questioned, it is discussed on the chemical-physical mechanisms that give the tourmaline this property. The tourmaline has positive-negative electrodes that generate an electromagnetic wave applied to the water of 4 ÷ 14 μm (the corresponding energy is 0.004 watts / cm2). Following this the water clusters are disaggregated generating hydronium (H3O +) and hydroxyl (H3O2-) ions. The agitation of the tourmaline in water creates a friction that increases the production of positive and negative ions. The elbaite contained in CLINETOR® is a basic tourmaline which naturally releases mainly hydroxyl ions (H3O2-). A study conducted by Matsuoka et al. 12 formulates correlated hypotheses that take into consideration various aspects of tourmaline pyroelectricity by analyzing the possible consequences. Although not exhaustive, in this study are provided the answers that today make that the tourmaline is used, with dozens of patents, for processes involving detergency.

1. Increased water capacity in tourmaline to dissolve atmospheric oxygen as the increased electrical charges generated by the tourmaline would lead to the overall reaction:
6 (H2 O) + O2 + Oil → 8 (H +) + 4 (OH -) + 4 (O =) + Oil → 4 (H2 O) + (4 (OH -) + Oil
The first arrow indicates the natural dissociation of water, the second is a consequence of the electric charges generated in excess by the tourmaline, for which the oil binds to the OH-ions, constantly shifting the balance towards the right.

2. The simple dissociation of water. The electric charges generated by the tourmaline would lead to an overall reaction:
3 (H2 O) + Oil → 2 (H2 O) + (H +) + (OH -) + Oil → (H3 O +) + Oil + (H3 O2-) → (H3 O + + Oil) + (H3 O2- + Oil )
The first arrow indicates the natural dissociation of water, the second is a consequence of the electric charges generated in excess by the tourmaline which push the H3O + and H3O2 ions to the right, which bind to the oil, continuously shifting the equilibrium (the detergency).

3. Micro turbulence. The surface tension prevents water from entering the interstices of the fibers of the fabrics, preventing the removal of dirt. Water turbulence facilitates its penetration into the tissues. The static electricity generated by the tourmaline causes micro turbulence in the water. The rapid movement back and forth of the water (pole + pole -) on a smaller scale than that formed by the drops generated by the surface tension allows it to penetrate the fibers of the fabrics with the consequent removal of dirt.

4. Direct electrostatic effect. Dirt has a surface that is also covered by electrostatic forces (depending on the nature of the dirt). It is probable that the forces generated by the electric torques of the tourmaline exceed the electrostatic forces that hold together the dirt particles disaggregating them.

5. Surface tension. Surface tension is the force that prevents water from penetrating into fabrics that are not previously wet. The drops are formed as a result of surface tension and, under normal conditions, from a capillary tube, at 20 ° C, 58 drops of tap water (untreated) fall in 4 seconds to form 1 ml. The presence of static electric charges generated by the tourmaline (a large quantity of hydronium ions (H3O +) and an excess of hydroxyl ions (H3O2-)) means that in 1ml, about 1200 ÷ 1400 drops fall from the capillary. The drops therefore have dimensions that are about 1/20 of the normal drops. Said in a different way, the surface tension of the water passed in tourmaline is ten times smaller than that of tap water and the wetting effect and, therefore, detergent, is ten times greater. The emulsifying action for an O / W mixture is therefore greatly increased.

6. Permeability. Permeability is the ability of water to pass through a material that is previously wet to remove the effects of surface tension. Matsuoka’s experiments have shown that linked to the reduction of surface tension there is a concomitant increase in permeability, that is to say a reduced resistance of water to flow through previously wet fabrics.

7. Very weak energy activity. The weak energy emitted by the tourmaline (4 ÷ 14 μm) allows to disaggregate the water (on average the tap water is formed by clusters of 36 ÷ 38 molecules of water, the water passed through the tourmaline has clusters of 3 ÷ 6 water molecules). This allows the gases or heavy metals included in the clusters to be released making the water substantially free of impurities. As a consequence it can be used to wash particular pieces and allows to remove detergent residues from the fabric meshes.

8. Antifungal and antibacterial actions 13. The aluminum contained in the tourmaline has, together with the ionization of the water, an antifungal and bactericidal action.

9. Whitening action. The ionizing effect of tourmaline enhances the whitening effect of any specific additives used in the laundry.

10. Economy and respect for the environment. Unlike ordinary household cleaners, the use of tourmaline is much cheaper and does not cause environmental pollution.
Moreover, in theory, it is not necessary to rinse with a further water saving.

1. Butler, Edward Taylor (1962) Methods of determining pyroelectricity in tourmaline. American University, United-States; Master’s 40 p.
2. Gavrilova, N. D. (1965) Study of the temperature dependence of pyroelectric coefficients by the static method. Kristallografiya, 10.278-281.
3. Donnay, G. (1977) Structural mechanism of pyroelectricity in tourmaline. Acta Crystallographica, A, 33, 927-932.
4. Kittinger, E., Seil, and Tichy, J. (1979) Electroelastic effect in tourmaline. Zeitschrift fur Naturforsh., 34a, 1352-1354.
5. Novozhilov, A. I., Voskresenskaya, I.E. and Samilovich, M. I. (1969) Electron paramagnetic resonance study of tourmalines. Soviet Physics and Crystallography, 14, 416-418.
6. Yamaguchi, S. (1983) Surface electric fields of tourmaline. Applied Physics, A-31, 183-185.
7. Dambly, M., Pollak, H., Quartier, R. and Bruyneel, W. (1976) IR-irradiation enhanced effects in tourmaline. Journal de Physique, Colloque (Paris), 6, 807-810.
8. Han Lijuna, Liang Jinsheng, (2009) Mechanism of Far Infrared Emission from Mineral Tourmaline Fine Powders, Advanced Materials Research Vol. 58 pp 77-82
9.Houchin, M. R. (1986) Surface studies of aqueous suspensions of tourmaline (Dravite). Colloids and Surfaces, 19, 67-82.
10. Kubo, “Solid state physics, vol. 24, No. 12 Dec. 1989
11. Nakamura, T. and Kubo, T. (1992) Tourmaline group crystals reaction with water. Ferroelectrics, 137.1-4.
12. Matsuoka, Takahisa and Iwamoto, Mutsuo (1991) Surface tension and permeability of water treated by polar crystal tourmaline “, Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi vol. 38, No. 5, p. 422
13. Jose Maria Leal – (2008) Technology of Pò de turmalina preta – Tesi de doutorado

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